In an act of role reversal, Lex enters the role of solo host of Judaism Unbound and welcomes Dan onto the show as this week's featured guest! In this episode, Dan discusses a newly published book entitled The Secret Book of Kings by Yochi Brandes, which he has been working for three years to bring to English-speaking readers.  Together, Dan and Lex explore why this book's publication represents an important moment for American Judaism, along with ways in which its themes tie to many ideas that have previously been discussed on Judaism Unbound. 
(0:01 - 9:54): We welcome our "guest" Dan Libenson onto the show, and he gives us some background about the process that led to the publication of The Secret Book of Kings by Yochi Brandes in English. He explains his desire for a new look at the "mythology" of the ancient Northern Kingdom of Israel and talks about how The Secret Book of Kings begins the process of tuning that longing into reality.
(9:55 - 20:33): Dan describes the Bible as a work of art. Being careful to avoid spoilers, he then alludes to ways in which The Secret Book of Kings looks at the Bible through a contemporary feminist lens. To give further perspective into the storytelling strategies of The Secret Book of Kings, Dan and Lex compare it to other contemporary re-tellings of well-known narratives (The Da Vinci Code, Wicked, and The True Story of the Three Little Pigs). 
(20:34 - 34:35): We consider the ways in which The Secret Book of Kings both authentically includes elements of Biblical narratives and re-tells them in innovative, interesting ways. We also explore two interweaving themes of the book -- the power of storytelling and the multiplicity of historical narratives. In doing so, Lex suggests a analogy to contemporary tensions around the curriculum of the AP US History exam. 
(34:36 - 45:04): Lex explores the idea, stemming from a recent piece in Lilith Magazine, that Judaism is about "relationship with" as opposed to "adherence to" Jewish texts, history, culture, etc.  Dan concludes by arguing both that Judaism has generally been an incredibly multi-vocal tradition and that its multi-vocality has been a great strength. 
 To learn more about The Secret Book of Kings, learn more about its author, explore some interesting questions for discussion, and expand your learning by exploring books and audio and video resources about Biblical history, head to the book's companion web site, which was created by the Judaism Unbound team, at www.secretbookofkings.com.
 Explore the recent controversy over how we tell the story of the history of the United States through our AP US History exam in this CNN article.
 If you missed last week's episode with Professor Richard Elliott Friedman, based on his book Who Wrote the Bible?, it is worth listening to in tandem with this episode on The Secret Book of Kings. Listen to it by clicking here. If you enjoyed that episode and would like to learn more from Friedman, consider purchasing his 27-episode online course for $19.95 on Coursecraft at this link.
Professor Richard Elliott Friedman joins Dan and Lex for a conversation about modern Biblical scholarship, which his book Who Wrote the Bible? brought to lay audiences in an accessible way nearly thirty years ago (and which had a major influence on Dan and Lex). Among the most influential books on Biblical literature of the 20th Century, Who Wrote the Bible? provides a scholarly overview of the authorship of the Torah through a lens known as the "Documentary Hypothesis."  Subsequently, Professor Friedman wrote additional books making these ideas available to non-experts. Along with co-hosts Dan and Lex, Professor Friedman dives deeply into his ideas and scholarship, their impact on the world, and more!
(0:01 - 13:46): Prof. Friedman begins shares a bit of his own personal narrative, and then explains some of the basics of the Documentary Hypothesis.  To flesh out his explanation, he outlines how two separate flood narratives were woven together into one story in the Book of Genesis (the story of Noah and the ark).  
(13:47 - 27:37): Prof. Friedman examines some of the ways that the Documentary Hypothesis can shed light on ancient political struggles. Specifically, he looks at a variety of stories that elucidate a tension between those Biblical authors who traced themselves back to Aaron and those who traced themselves to Moses. He also discusses the question of historicity -- the extent to which particular events or characters depicted in the Bible were historical or literary. 
(27:38 - 44:12): Dan brings up a novel (which we will explore in further detail on our next episode) entitled The Secret Book of Kings. He and Prof. Friedman look at the similarities and differences between the northern kingdom (Israel) and the southern kingdom (Judah), both through a historical lens and through the textual lens of the Bible, an important distinction that is significant to the plot and understanding of The Secret Book of Kings.  We close the episode by looking at another of Friedman's books, The Bible Now, which asks what the Bible has to say about contemporary issues, along with the broader impact of Who Wrote the Bible? on individuals, the Jewish community, and the world.  
 Click here for a short, written overview of the documentary hypothesis that you can find online.
 You can look at Prof. Friedman's presentation of both Noah stories, intertwined with one another, by clicking here (it is a download link, not a website).
 Dan mentions The Secret Book of Kings, a novel that he helped translate and bring to English-speaking readers. To pre-order it, click here, and to learn more about it, head to www.secretbookofkings.com.
 You can find further biblical history or archaeology resources for further reading, listening, or viewing by clicking here.
It's hard to believe, but this episode marks Judaism Unbound's six-month anniversary -- 26 weeks! In honor of the occasion, Dan and Lex look back at what they've learned from the topics we've covered thus far, and offer a lens into the next six months of the podcast and beyond.
(0:01 - 12:19): We begin by exploring a theme we discovered in many of our guests -- they often start organizations to solve their own problems, engaging individuals similar to themselves in age and life experience. We also explore ways that our podcast is providing a space not merely to engage in Judaism, but also to talk about it. While we initially didn't realize that there was an audience out there looking for conversations about Judaism, we have since realized that Judaism Unbound is one of the only public-facing spaces that provides a way to participate in those discussions. 
(12:20 - 26:16): Dan brings up Hello Mazel, an initiative we have explored in many of our past episodes.  Specifically he and Lex consider their inclusion of margarita mix in their summer box, implying that Jews themselves can make any object relate to Judaism -- not just those that we see as inherently Jewish. We also ask how to balance the element of surprise with the familiarity that many people desire, especially in religious institutions. 
(26:17 - 43:36): We close by looking at the question of nature vs. nurture. Is there something inherent to particular people that gives them the ability to craft exciting new Jewish ideas? On the other hand, are there particular skills that can be taught? Some combination of the two? We also introduce the idea of "plausibility structures," along with the important role they can play in re-inventing Judaism. We also come back to the title of our initiaitive -- Judaism Unbound, exploring why it is we need to push past some of the limits we've imposed on genuine expressions of Judaism. 
 In this opening section of the show, we allude to some of our early episodes. If you were intrigued by some of our references to these early episodes, you can listen to them at the following links: Episode 3: Exodus - Benay Lappe, Episode 4: Exodus II, Episode 12: Minhag America - Anita Diamant
 We have mentioned Hello Mazel, an initiative of The Kitchen (a San Francisco emergent community), a few times in past episodes. For our most in-depth look at it, check out Episode 23, featuring the individuals who created it -- Yoav Schlesinger and Noa Kushner of The Kitchen.
 If you're interested in exploring the episodes we allude to in this segment, you can listen to Episode 5: Leviticus - Vanessa Ochs (on inventing and re-inventing Jewish ritual) and Episode 14: Putting the "American" in American Judaism (where we discuss the "Bernie Sanders Jews").
 We allude to a conversation about Judaism as an operating system towards the conclusion of this episode. To explore the question of Judaism as an operating system vs. Judaism as an app, listen to Episode 21: jOS 4.0 - A New Jewish Operating System?.
Dan and Lex close out a series of episodes entitled "Emergent Innovation," which featured Rachel Barenblat and David Markus (of ALEPH: The Alliance for Jewish Renewal), Noa Kushner and Yoav Schlesinger (of The Kitchen), and Sarah Lefton (of BimBam).  We discuss what it means to look at Judaism through a "modular" lens, such that various elements of Judaism can be "unbundled" from what has been thought of as more of an integrated system, and explored and developed as independent pieces.
(0:01 - 11:14): Dan and Lex take on the question of "what if?" To what extent do we assume, in the Jewish world, that ventures that succeed were "meant" to succeed and ventures that did not were "meant" to fail? How can we account for serendipity and bad luck? What means of evaluation could be used to avoid dismissing an idea after one attempt that does not succeed? We consider the role that such a shift would play in the funding of Jewish institutions as well. 
(11:15 - 27:24): We carry forward the conversation about the economics of Judaism by discussing ways that elements of Judaism could be made less expensive (both with respect to money and time). We then open up the conversation instigated by the title of this episode -- what does it mean to "unbundle" Judaism? Is it permissible (or necessary) to create avenues of connecting to one or two "modules" of Judaism without connecting those modules to the rest of the Jewish "system"? In this conversation we explore analogies to the worlds of music, academia, and theater.  
(27:25 - 42:22): We consider how the "unbundling" of Judaism relates to the contemporary phenomenon of shifting the location of Jewish communal activity from Jewish institutional buildings to the home and to other spaces that aren't necessarily marked as distinctly Jewish.  We close by looking to the future and ask whether it might be possible to create entirely new kinds of spaces that fit particular Jewish needs.
 At the beginning of the episode, we mention the launch of our Patreon account. Paterson is a web-based funding platform that allows people to become patrons of creations and creators they want to support by signing up to give a small (or large) monthly donation. Become a patron by donating here (any amount, even $4 or $5 a month, goes a long way, especially if many of our listeners do it). We think this method of support is interesting in its own right in light of the topic we are exploring on today's show -- modular Jewish experiences (like Judaism Unbound) funded by modular support -- like paying $1 for a song instead of $15 for an album. Thanks so much for your support!
 For a deeper look at the shift embodied in music from full-length albums to individual tracks and playlists, along with how it applies to Judaism, read Kerry Olitzky's book Playlist Judaism.
 We mention the organization One Table in discussing modular Judaism. To learn more about their work, visit www.onetable.org. We will interview the executive director of One Table, Aliza Kline, in a few weeks.
 We allude to our "chutzpah vs. knowledge" curve in this section of the episode. For a more detailed description of this idea, listen to episode 6 of our podcast here.
What does it look like to start a Jewish organization that functions almost entirely in the digital world? Sarah Lefton, the founder and executive director of BimBam (formerly G-dcast), an organization that produces animated videos about Jewish texts, practices, and ideas, as well as apps and other new media,  joins Dan and Lex to give us a window into that process. She outlines her own Jewish story, the evolution of BimBam over time, some of the unique characteristics of digital forms of Judaism, and more. 
(0:01 - 18:53): Lefton begins by looking back at her own Jewish life. She discusses growing up with a strong sense of Jewish pride, but very little knowledge, and then describes her corrective journey into Jewish study and texts that began in her twenties and outlines how that story helped lead to the founding of G-dcast (now BimBam).  
(18:54 - 31:50): We explore the feelings of intimidation and alienation that can arise in people who are less Jewishly knowledgeable (or feel less knowledgeable) than other Jews they encounter.  Lefton also analyzes the success that BimBam has had reaching intermarried families and couples, along with prospective converts to Judaism.
(31:51 - 43:34): Lefton considers both the positive and negative sides of the digital world in general and digital Judaism in particular. We also go into some more detail about BimBam's series of videos on the yearly cycle of Torah portions  and Bimbam's newest project -- a children's television show called Shaboom! 
 To learn more about BimBam and check out all of their videos, visit www.Bimbam.com.
 As part of Judaism Unbound's Shavuot Unbound initiative, one of our 6-hour tracks was to watch the entire cycle of BimBam's Torah portion videos! They're still available on our site, even though it's not Shavuot, and you can access them here (allow a few seconds for the page to load, as there are many videos).
 Dan and Sarah both spoke about the important role a conference called "The Conversation" played in their professional growth. (It's also where they first met, nearly a decade ago, when they were both starting out.) To learn more about this event (sponsored by New York's Jewish Week newspaper), visit its website here.
 Lefton speaks about her work at Camp Tawonga, a Jewish camp near Yosemite National Park, in discussing what led to the founding of BimBam. Visit the Camp Tawonga site here.
 Lefton explains that BimBam's video on shiva (a Jewish ritual for mourning the death of a loved one) arose partially due to her own intimidation at the thought of attending her very first shiva. Watch this video by clicking the video above and to the right (click the square button in the bottom right for full-screen).
 The very first video that Lefton produced for this project was on the Torah portion of Balak. Click the video above and on the left to watch it (click the square button in the bottom right for full-screen).
 Watch the pilot episode of Shaboom by clicking the video directly to the left (click the square button in the bottom for full-screen).
The Kitchen, an emergent Jewish spiritual community in San Francisco, made waves earlier this year when they launched their Hello Mazel initiative -- a "quarterly box of Jewish stuff" sent to people's homes, which quickly became the most-funded Jewish Kickstarter project ever and reached thousands of people across the country. Dan and Lex welcome two of its leaders -- Rabbi Noa Kushner and Yoav Schlesinger -- to explore what The Kitchen is, to understand its goals and methods, and to find out how Hello Mazel came to be. 
(0:01 - 13:14): Noa Kushner walks us through the origins and evolution of The Kitchen, focusing on San Francisco's low Jewish affiliation rate (even lower than much of the rest of the United States), and she lays out The Kitchen's mission to do everything in its power to reach segments of San Francisco's Jewish population who did not find available options compelling. In doing so, she emphasizes the importance of both communal events and individual experiences, along with describing the Jewish world's general tendency to prioritize the former over the latter.
(13:15 - 26:39): We learn why "The Kitchen" was chosen as the name for the organization. Kushner and Schlesinger explain why they've chosen not to acquire any real estate, along with their process for determining the locations of their various events. We learn about the process The Kitchen went through with IDEO, a design firm, to determine long-term vision and strategy. 
(26:40 - 43:45): Schlesinger walks us through the thinking behind Hello Mazel, a national initiative that The Kitchen launched earlier this year with great success.  He talks about some of the items included in Hello Mazel's first box, released this past Passover, and Dan and Lex recount how they utilized them at their own seders. We also explore the extent to which Hello Mazel exemplifies a new focus on homes as the loci of Jewish experiences -- potentially displacing Jewish public spaces like synagogues and Jewish community centers. 
 In discussing the shift towards homes as a locus for Jewish life, Kushner mentions the Chavurah movement and the Jewish Catalog that has come to symbolize much of its work. You can learn more about the Chavurah movement here, and purchase the first Jewish Catalog here.
Rabbis Rachel Barenblat ("The Velveteen Rabbi") and David Markus, co-chairs of the board of ALEPH: The Alliance for Jewish Renewal, join us for the first episode of a four-episode series entitled "Emergent Innovation." Along with co-hosts Dan Libenson and Lex Rofes, they look back at the history of Jewish Renewal, look forward towards its future, and discuss its animating philosophies and their application beyond the movement itself.
(0:01 - 15:20): Barenblat and Markus begin by going over the history (the movement officially started in the 1980s) and pre-history of Jewish Renewal, along with some of its basic tenets (including "deep ecumenism," feminism, and elements of Hasidism).  We also learn about their journey together into Jewish Renewal, which began at Williams College and was sparked when both read The Jew in the Lotus, by Rodger Kamenetz. 
(15:21 - 22:37): Our guests expand on the notion of "inventing" our own Judaism -- even when similar Jewish rituals might already have been invented! We also look at Jewish Renewal as it relates to some of the other denominations of Judaism (such as Reform, Reconstructionist, and Conservative Judaism).  Rachel asks a pressing question -- "What is the Judaism of the future that you want to see?" -- and discusses some of the ways that Jewish Renewal attempts to answer it.
(22:38 - 34:14): We discuss the extent to which there exists a tension in Judaism between flexibility on the one hand and structure on the other, and we explore how that question manifests in Jewish Renewal. In doing so, we explore the place of prayer in Judaism, along with the variety of forms of prayer that exist in Jewish Renewal.
(34:15 - 47:37): To close the episode, Markus and Barenblat look toward the future, considering two key questions: first, to what extent can (or must) forms of Judaism evolve that are substantially less expensive from a financial standpoint,  and second, what might Judaism and Jewish Renewal look like once the Millennial generation is given the proverbial "keys to the car."
 Learn more about Jewish Renewal by visiting ALEPH: The Alliance for Jewish Renewal's website.
 For more information on the life of Rabbi Zalman Schachter-Shalomi, the founder of Jewish Renewal, visit this link from Aleph's website.
 On the left you can see a variety of feminist Haggadot, as referenced by Barenblat.
 Dan mentions two individuals that have historically been regarded by many rabbis as heretics -- Elisha ben Abuya (also known as "Acher" meaning "the other") and Baruch (Benedictus) Spinoza. The book As a Driven Leaf explores the life of Elisha ben Abuya in greater detail and is available here. Learn about Spinoza here.
 In discussing the future of Judaism, Markus alludes to ALEPH's rabbinic program, which primarily functions online. To learn more about this program (as well as ALEPH's cantorial, rabbinic pastor, and spiritual director programs), click here.
Might we learn something about Judaism from the cell phones that we carry in our pocket every day? In this episode, Dan and Lex explore whether Judaism's "operating system" is functioning properly. If not, they ask whether it is need of a "patch," an "upgrade," or a "new release" -- or is it even possible that Judaism could shift from an "operating system" into an "app"?
(0:01 - 13:21): We lay out the metaphorical framework of Judaism as an operating system. Dan lays out three models for potential Jewish change that he analogizes to "patching" the operating system, "upgrading" it, and creating an entirely "new release."  Furthermore, we ask whether an even bigger transition might be taking place, where Judaism is transitioning from an "operating system" (the primary or foundational identity of its adherents) to an app -- where it is merely one element of people's lives alongside many others. 
(13:22 - 24:53): We explore the ways in which Judaism would look different in the future if it transitioned into an application (an app), as opposed to an operating system.  This includes a shift from the question of "How do I live as a Jew?" to "Why be (or do) Jewish at all?" 
(24:54 - 42:24): Is Judaism "all or nothing"? We consider the extent to which Judaism could in the future become "unbundled" -- where individuals opt in to particular elements of Jewish ritual, history, culture, and more without opting in to the entirety of Judaism as a system. Additionally, we ask whether Judaism fundamentally is or should be dedicated to being separate from the rest of the world and its various religious traditions. Is it "crossing a line" for Judaism to incorporate practices from other religious or non-religious traditions? What about the inverse -- is it problematic for those who are not Jewish to incorporate elements of Judaism into their lives?  Perhaps answers will shift as Judaism transitions into a different kind of operating system or into a "cross-platform app."
 In discussing Judaism as an operating system, we allude to the story of Steve Jobs, the man behind Apple and its successful operating systems. For more on the story we discuss of how NeXT's operating system (designed by the company Jobs created after he left Apple) was later acquired by Apple, read this piece.
 Dan wrote an article, entitled "Jewish Education for a Time of Wandering," in 2012 in Zeek Magazine that began to explore the idea of "Judaism 4.0," which we develop further in this episode. To read Dan's article, visit this link.
 In discussing The Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas Kuhn, we allude to an earlier episode of our podcast (Episode 6: Leviticus II). To listen to it, click here.
 For the importance of making "why" an enterprise's central question, watch this TED Talk, entitled "Start With Why," featuring Simon Sinek (available by clicking on the video directly to the right).
 At the end of the episode, Lex refers to a Jewish school in Utah whose student body is only 25% Jewish. Learn more by reading this article from the Jewish Telegraphic Agency.
Beth Finger, founder of Jewish Without Walls (JWOW) joins Judaism Unbound for the third episode in our "New Platforms in Jewish Life series." We learn about the successful strategies JWOW uses to engage Jewish families and talk about issues ranging from contemporary denominational divides to the role of the internet in the Jewish present and future.
(0:01 - 11:41): Finger begins by explaining what Jewish Without Walls (JWOW) is, how it came to be, and who its seeks to serve.  She compares and contrasts the role that JWOW plays with those of traditional Jewish organizations, such as synagogues. We also discuss the financial and programmatic reasons that JWOW's mission is to exist "without walls."
(11:42 - 23:36): We examine various challenges involved in forming, maintaining, and growing a Jewish start-up.  Finger also explains why JWOW has chosen not to identify as a "religious" organization, along with the importance that Big Tent Judaism's philosophy of "Public-Space Judaism" plays in JWOW approach. 
(23:37 - 34:29): Finger describes her own background and reflects on what led her to found a Jewish start-up, focusing on her trans-denominational Jewish upbringing and early professional experience as a JCSC (Jewish Campus Service Corps) Fellow at Brooklyn College Hillel.  She also discusses the crucial importance that social media and the internet play in JWOW's work, and Lex adds some thoughts on the central role that Facebook can play in Jewish lives.  
(34:30 - 46:04): Finger gives some specific examples of what JWOW programming looks like. We then delve into how JWOW not only positively affects not the children who come to its programs, but also can deepen their parents' Jewish identities and knowledge as well.   Finger emphasizes the importance of empowering people to create their own Judaism, as opposed to insisting on a top-down model.
 Finger mentions a few organizations that exist to support Jewish start-up efforts. To learn more about them, check out the following websites: Slingshot, UpStart, Natan, Joshua Venture, and ROI Community.
 The JCSC Fellowship no longer exists, but a new program recently launched by Hillel International -- the Springboard Fellowship -- plays a similar role in cultivating early career staff. Learn more about it here.
 Dan talks about the impact that PJ Library had on his family, and about the potential of a "PJ Library for adults." To learn more about that initiative, check out its website.
 For more on Judaism being meaningful not just for kids, but parents as well, check out this Kveller article, entitled "I Am Jewish For Me, Not For My Kids."
David Cygielman, founder and CEO of Moishe House, joins Dan and Lex for the second episode in a four-episode series entitled "New Platforms for Jewish Life." Moishe House's mission is to provide vibrant Jewish community for young adults by supporting leaders in their 20s as they create meaningful home-based Jewish experiences for themselves and their peers.
(0:01 - 10:26): Cygielman begins by explaining how Moishe House began, along with how its model works.  He also illustrates the funding challenges faced by new Jewish ideas by telling the story of how Moishe House -- now one of the biggest success stories in the Jewish world of the last decade -- almost closed down only a few years after it got started.
(10:27 - 22:00): We explore what it is about Moishe House that helps it succeed in mid-size and smaller cities,  something that many national Jewish organizations struggle to do. Cygielman goes on to describe the relatively new Moishe House Without Walls.  He also explains the role that learning retreats, also a relatively new Moishe House initiative, play in their model and considers a variety of reasons that Moishe House has resonated with its demographic (22-30 year-old Jews).
(22:01 - 33:36): We discuss the extent to which Moishe House residents (and other participants in its programming) become involved in the broader landscape of organized Jewish life. We also consider whether Moishe House is part of a larger shift in 21st Century American Jewish life, in which the home is becoming an important center of Jewish life, not only for families, but also for extended networks of friends and other interested people -- potentially taking on at least part of the role played in the 20th Century by synagogues and other "official" Jewish gatheriing spaces.  Cygielman introduces a dichotomy he refers to as "large tent" vs. "lots of tents," explaining how Moishe House's model is based on lots of tents.
(33:37 - 44:21): We ask Cygielman to reflect on what characteristics are most necessary for individuals and groups looking to build new and successful Jewish organizations. As we close, Cygielman articulates the fundamental importance of financial transparency and authenticity with one's staff and constituents, arguing that both are necessary in engaging rising generations. 
 Visit Moishe House's website to learn more about the organization.
 Moishe House Without Walls funds programming that does not take place in Moishe Houses; among other things, it is a way to support programming in cities without a critical mass of people to open a Moishe House to implement similar programming on a smaller scale. Learn more about it here.
 To learn more about some of the other Jewish organizations referenced which are, similar to Moishe House, focusing their programming efforts on the home, visit the websites of One Table, Kevah, and Hello Mazel.
 Moishe House demonstrates its transparency by including its Evaluation Findings publicly on its website. You can access them here.
Angie Thurston and Casper ter Kuile, experts on the emerging group of Americans known as the religious "nones," join Judaism Unbound for Episode 18. Thurston and ter Kuile are co-authors of two monographs, entitled How We Gather and Something More, respectively, and they serve as Ministry Innovation Fellows at Harvard Divinity School.
(0:01 - 12:56): Thurston and ter Keile begin by telling their own stories and explaining what led them to their current work on the religious "nones." They discuss the origins of their How We Gather report , along with some of the communities featured in it.  Additionally, they consider the question of whether these organizations are replicating themes of religion consciously or subconsciously. 
(12:57 - 25:55): Next, ter Keile and Thurston unpack six themes they identified as particularly important for organizations looking to build successful communities outside of organized religion (community, personal transformation, social transformation, purpose finding, creativity, and accountability). They also delve into a broad swath of topics ranging from sports fandom,  to Religion for Atheists (a book by Alain de Botton),  to the Harry Potter series as a sacred text. 
(25:56 - 44:36): In this section, ter Keile (a native to Great Britain) outlines some of the differences between the United States and Great Britain in the realm of religion.  He and Thurston, along with Dan and Lex, next explore questions of language -- what are the benefits and drawbacks of the term "spirituality?" How about "religion?" We close out the show by exploring shifts in the landscape of American religion due to advances in digital technology.
 The philosopher Joseph Campbell comes up twice in this conversation. To learn more about him and his philosophy, check out his wikipedia page.
 For more on sports fandom's resemblance to religion, read this article in The Atlantic.
 To listen to Harry Potter and the Sacred Text, a podcast that ter Kuile co-hosts with Vanessa Zoltan, click here.
 The following are links to the websites of all organizations included in How We Gather, for anyone interested in exploring them in greater detail: The Dinner Party, CrossFit, SoulCycle, CTZNWELL, U.S. Department of Arts and Culture, Millennial Trains Project, Live in the Grey, Juniper Path, Camp Grounded, and The Sanctuaries.
Stay tuned for Episodes 18-21 of our Judaism Unbound podcast! These four episodes together constitute a series we are calling "New Platforms for Jewish Life," and they will feature guests Casper ter Kuile, Angie Thurston, David Cygielman, and Beth Finger, along with co-hosts Dan Libenson and Lex Rofes! For more information on our upcoming guests, read their bios below.
Casper ter Kuile and Angie Thurston are Ministry Innovation Fellows at Harvard Divinity School. They authored two monographs together, entitled How We Gather and Something More, which explore a variety of organizations that are successfully engaging the growing subset of Americans known as the "nones" (those who do not identify with any religion).
David Cygielman is the founder and CEO of Moishe House. Moishe House provides vibrant Jewish community for young adults by supporting leaders in their 20s as they create meaningful, home-based Jewish experiences for themselves and their peers. While the organization is only 10 years old, there are now 85 Moishe Houses, located all around the world (58 in North America and 27 located on other continents).
Beth Finger is the founder of Jewish Without Walls (JWOW), a two-time Slingshot selection as one of America's most innovative Jewish organizations. JWOW brings young Jewish families together across denominations and affiliations in vibrant Jewish communities. She is also a Wexner Graduate Fellow who holds Masters degrees in Judaic Studies from the Jewish Theological Seminary and Social Work from Columbia University.
Dan and Lex close out their three-episode series on Intermarriage: The New Normal in this episode. They explain why they don't think intermarriage is bad for American Judaism, explore questions of what it means to be a "Jewish leader," and discuss shifts away from binary, either-or ways of thinking.
(0:01 - 10:36): We begin the episode by articulating our belief that intermarriage is not a problem to be solved, but simply a fact of 21st Century Judaism. We then reflect on issues of intermarriage and gender that we discussed Keren McGinity and the intersection between intermarriage and race that we touched on with Paul Golin.  We also discuss the disconnect between American Jewish institutional leaders, many of whom still see intermarriage as a problem, and most American Jews, who take intermarriage is a given and nevertheless seek and believe that the can have meaningful Jewish lives.  
(10:37 - 21:56): Next, we take a look at the idea of "Jewish leadership," suggesting that some institutional leaders imagine their constituencies to be broader (perhaps all Jews in their area) than they are in actuality (the subset of local Jews who are engaged in that organization). Returning to the subject of intermarriage, we think through why intermarriage isn't inherently bad for American Judaism.
(21:57 - 35:33): We discuss the shift from binary, either-or ways of thinking to new ways of thinking that don't assume, for example, that a person or a family must either be Jewish or not Jewish; we seem to be looking at a present and a future in which Judaism will be on of a number of parts of people's lives.  Building on this thinking, we express concern that in not believing that Judaism can stand up against "competition," a self-fulfilling prophesy comes about in which it truly cannot. 
(35:34 - 44:47): We re-visit the question of "Jewish leadership," critiquing the tendency to conflate the idea of a "Jewish professional" with a "Jewish leader," and overstating the actual influence "leaders" seem to have with "regular Jews." We also argue that those who elevate the status of "leaders" send the message to the rest of us that it is not our place to invent or innovate new and exciting ways of being Jews, when such innovations by regular Jews might be quite successful if they were undertaken.
 This episode is coming out the day before Shavuot begins. If you'd like to participate in the Shavuot Unbound initiative that we mention at the beginning of this episode -- deep immersion in Judaism with a 21st Century twist -- click here!
 Dan tells the story of the twelve spies who saw themselves as "grasshoppers." For the full story, see Numbers 13:1-14:24.
 Lex mentions Big Tent Judaism's "Stained Glass Ceiling" report. To explore its findings, click here.
 In this segment, Dan critiques the tendency to dismiss engagement by non-Jews (and Jews) with various "modular" ideas of Judaism instead of being into the whole system. Dan mentions the celebrities who have gotten involved with the Kabbalah Centre as potentially an example of legitimate "Jew-ish" engagement. To learn more about the Kabbalah Centre and decide for yourself, click here.
Paul Golin, noted thinker and writer, past Associate Executive Director of Big Tent Judaism, and administrator of the Jewpanese Facebook page, joins Dan and Lex for the second episode of our Intermarriage: The New Normal series. We examine the role that intermarriage plays in the Jewish world today and broaden our conversation to discuss trends affecting the Jewish present and future more generally.
(0:01 - 10:28): Paul Golin reflects on Benay Lappe's "Crash" Theory (which she presented in Episode 3 of our podcast), looking back on his own crash -- his rejection of major tenets of Judaism as a child -- and he critiques the prominent tendency among Jewish institutional leaders to talk about "the intermarried" as a single broad group. 
(10:29 - 22:14): Building on the concept of privilege, Golin explores the harmful role that the idea of people "looking Jewish"  plays in the Jewish world.  He also introduces the idea of "born-Jewish privilege."  Ultimately, he asserts, we need to ask (and answer) the question "why be Jewish," arguing that most of the concerns expressed about "Jewish continuity" and perceived threats to it, would be alleviated if Jews really had a sense that being Jewish contributed meaningfully to the lives they want to lead. 
(22:15 - 34:29): Golin lays out the reasons that the High Holidays can be a difficult time for intermarried individuals and their loved ones, along with his own distance from Jewish spaces that center on prayer. He pushes against the idea that Judaism must be one's primary or sole identity, embracing the fact that in 21st Century America, identities are incredibly nuanced and multi-faceted.  
(34:30 - 47:21): We look to the future, asking Golin what he thinks Judaism could look like in 100 years. We explore contemporary notions of universalism and particularism and the extent to which particularism can become tribalism. We deepen this conversation through the example of philanthropic giving, where we discuss the belief by some that Jews should prioritize giving to Jewish organizations over giving to "universalistic" causes. 
 In the course of this segment of our conversation, Golin mentions a facebook group that he oversees, called Jewpanese - Where Jewish and Japanese Converge.
 This recent Huffington Post article, which references Golin, expands on the issues presented by the idea of "looking Jewish."
 The idea of "looking Jewish" relates to a concept referred to as "Ashkenormativity," which Jonathan P. Katz's expands on in this piece in The Forward.
 To read more of Golin's thoughts on "Born-Jewish privilege" read this 2010 article that he authored.
 We briefly allude to Irwin Kula's idea of "Judaism as a technology" in this segment of the show. For more, watch the video on the left featuring Kula, entitled "Innovation in the Technology of Religion."
 Professor Shaul Magid expands on the changing nature of American identity, including the idea of "post-ethnicity" in Episode 13 of our Judaism Unbound podcast.
 For more of Golin's "Futurology," read an essay he wrote entitled "Judaism and the Singularity: Using Futurism to Predict Possible Trajectories of Jewish Identity and Community"
 Rabbi Rebecca Wolitz Sirbu wrote a piece for eJewish Philanthropy that expands on these questions.
Dr. Keren McGinity joins us for a conversation about intermarriage and gender. McGinity is the author of Still Jewish: A History of Women and Intermarriage in America and Marrying Out: Jewish Men, Intermarriage, and Fatherhood. She founded the Love & Tradition Institute and serves as Director of the Interfaith Families Jewish Engagement Program at Hebrew College. 
(0:01 - 11:28): Dr. McGinity walks us through the evolution of Jewish intermarriage over the course of the 20th century and discusses the roles that the ideas of matrilineal and patrilineal descent have played. 
(11:29 - 27:23): Dr. McGinity explains that there are differences between Jewish men who intermarry and Jewish women who intermarry and elaborates on what some of those differences are. We also compare and contrast heterosexual intermarriage with same-sex intermarriage  and unpack frameworks of masculinity in the Jewish community and more broadly. 
(27:24-37:47): Next, Dr. McGinity lays out her vision for a Jewish world that is excited about its diversity across differences in gender, sexual orientation, race, and more. She also guides us through a conversation on the topics of Jewish parenting and education. 
(37:48-46:46): We explore the phenomenon of intermarriages where both couples are deeply immersed in their own religious tradition. To close out the episode, Dr. McGinity encourages us to move past the idea of being "pro" or "anti" intermarriage and to open ourselves up to a world of Jewish discontinuity.
 Dr. McGinity was recently interviewed about the Interfaith Families Jewish Engagement Program that she directs for Hebrew College. The text of the interview can be found here.
 We reference the concept of "heteronormativity" in our conversation about same-sex intermarriage. To learn more about what that term means, you can read this article from the Gender and Education Association.
 Dr. McGinity uses the phrase "all genders" during our conversation. Using the phrase "both genders" would suggest that gender is a binary -- that all people are either men or women. The more inclusive phrase "all genders" recognizes those who identify as genderqueer, transgender, intersex, and a variety of other gender expressions and identities. For a helpful set of graphics explaining these various phenomena, see this link.
 To learn more about four organizations that are doing work on the issue of intermarriage in the Jewish community, click the following links: Interfaith Families Jewish Engagement Program at Hebrew College, Parenting Through a Jewish Lens, InterfaithFamily, and Big Tent Judaism.
For the final episode of our "Judaism in America" series, Dan and Lex build on key ideas that emerged in the three previous conversations in the series, which featured Jonathan Sarna, Anita Diamant, and Shaul Magid, beginning to develop a set of ideas about where American Judaism will be headed in the future.
(0:01 - 10:15): We begin by looking back on major themes from our recent episodes featuring Jonathan Sarna, Anita Diamant, and Shaul Magid,  focusing on continuity vs. discontinuity with special application to the impact of feminism on Jewish life in America.
(10:16 - 19:29): Building on our discussion of feminism, we develop a broader conversation about the nature of movements for "inclusion." Is "inclusion" of marginalized individuals enough, or does the word "inclusion" imply that those on the periphery have to discard parts of themselves in order to be considered full participants?  
(19:30 - 32:04): We take our conversation in a new direction, discussing the Jewish identities of Presidential candidate Bernie Sanders  and Supreme Court Justice Elena Kagan  (both Jewish). While many in the organized Jewish community question the depth and significance of Jewish identities like Sanders's, asserting that they are thin, we explore whether they may actually represent a profound and meaningful early stage in the development of a different Judaism that resonates with a growing segment of the American Jewish population. We discuss public manifestations of this kind of Judaism, ranging from the artwork of cartoonist Eli Valley  to the TV show Broad City. 
(32:05 - 45:59): We further develop this perspective by exploring the idea that "Sanders Judaism" may actually be a new "dialect" of the Jewish "language." We look at the field of linguistics, which critiques the phenomenon of "prescriptive grammar," and analogize it to what Lex calls "prescriptive Judaism."  We close the episode with a sneak preview of our upcoming series of episodes on the topic of intermarriage, entitled "Intermarriage: The New Normal," featuring Dr. Keren McGinity and Paul Golin.
 If you enjoyed our previous three episodes, consider reading a book by one of our guests. You can purchase American Judaism by Jonathan Sarna, The Boston Girl by Anita Diamant, or American Post-Judaism by Shaul Magid on Amazon.
 Rabbi Sharon Kleinbaum's remarks on "inclusion" at the recent Wrestling with Peoplehood Conference are available to watch at this link (42 minutes to 51 minutes). Our co-host, Lex Rofes, spoke in a different session at the same conference, and you can view his remarks in the video on the left (4:25 through 15:20).
 We define the term "intersectionality" in this section. For an application of that term to Jewish life, check out this Jewish take on intersectionality by Jay Michaelson. For a broader piece that answers the question "what is intersectionality", check out this piece.
 To hear more about Bernie Sanders and his identity, you can watch this video.
 You can watch Elena Kagan respond to Lindsey Graham's question of "Where were you on Christmas Day?" in this video (featured on left).
 We mention cartoonist Eli Valley's work as emblematic of some of the new forms of Jewish identity that we see arising in America. Check out his recent viral cartoon, which contrasts the Judaism of Bernie Sanders with the Judaism of much of the institutional Jewish world.
 The show Broad City has gained a huge following, especially among young Jewish women. Its most recent series finale, while not traditionally Jewish, touches on a variety of important Jewish issues, including questions related to Israel and Jewish continuity.
 In discussing the ways in which principles of linguistics may apply to Jewish communal life, we mention the idea of "prescriptive grammar." For a more detailed description of what "prescriptive grammar" is and why it can have harmful effects, you can read this Full-Stop.net article.
Professor Shaul Magid joins Dan and Lex for the third episode in our four-episode series, entitled "Judaism in America: Evolutions, Revolutions, or Something Else?" Professor Magid's book, American Post-Judaism, serves as a springboard for a discussion about American post-ethnicity, the Holocaust, survivalism, and spiritual humanism. Next week, Dan and Lex close out the series by connecting elements of this conversation to Episode 11, featuring Jonathan Sarna, and Episode 12, featuring Anita Diamant.
(0:01 - 10:46): Professor Magid tells the story of his own personal Jewish journey, including the role that his immersion in the Haredi (Ultra-Orthodox) world played in his life. He explains the meaning of the term "post-Judaism" in the title of his book American Post-Judaism, critiquing the mainstream understanding of Jewish history as one continuous "evolutionary process." 
(10:47 - 22:15): Magid describes some of the "seismic shifts" that have occurred in the last few centuries of Jewish history. Among them, he lists the recent shift towards "post-ethnicity" in America,  arguing that the lives of Madeleine Albright and Bernie Sanders represent a Judaism that has become "much more performative than essential."  He goes on to discuss how three key figures -- Felix Adler, Mordecai Kaplan, and Zalman Schachter-Shalomi  -- embody the American evolution from the "melting pot" to multi-culturalism and, finally, to American post-ethnicity.
(22:16 - 34:37): Professor Magid opens up the conversation on religious syncretism, unpacking the ways in which religions and cultures constantly influence one another. He also provides insight on the Holocaust's immense impact on Judaism through an exploration of three figures who responded to the Holocaust in very different ways (Jacob Neusner, Meir Kahane, and Zalman Schachter-Shalomi). 
(34:38 - 47:04): To close this episode, we look at the Jewish present and future. Magid talks about two modes of Jewish identity that he describes as "survivalism" and "spiritual humanism." He also explores the future of secular Jewish identity and the potential of formerly Ultra-Orthodox Jews to help re-invent Judaism. To close, he asks listeners to focus not on our nostalgia for the past, but on the potential for a different Jewish future.
 If you are interested in purchasing American Post-Judaism, it is available on Amazon as a book or in Kindle form.
 In this discussion, Magid mentions Horace Kallen, an early 20th century writer who pioneered the idea of "cultural pluralism." To read one of Kallen's most well-cited essays, entitled "Democracy Versus the Melting Pot," visit this link.
 Magid discusses Madeleine Albright's response to learning, at age 59, that her parents were born Jewish. Upon discovering this fact, she still did not consider Judaism to be her contemporary identity, but instead part of her "heritage." For more on her identity, you can read this Huffington Post article.
 Professor Magid wrote a piece in Tablet Magazine, discussing Jacob Neusner and his thoughts on the Holocaust that can be accessed here. He wrote a separate piece on Meir Kahane, entitled "Anti-Semitism as Colonialism: Meir Kahane's 'Ethics of Violence'" that can be accessed here. Zalman Schachter-Shalomi rarely wrote about the Holocaust on its own, but he discusses it and many other Jewish issues in the book Paradigm Shift.
We welcome Anita Diamant to the show for the second episode in our four-episode series on "Judaism in America: Evolutions, Revolutions, or Something Else?" Diamant was the founding President of Mayyim Hayyim Living Waters Community Mikveh and is the award-winning author of The Red Tent, The Boston Girl, and many other works. 
(0:01 - 8:47): We begin with a discussion about the origins of Mayyim Hayyim, the innovative community mikveh (ritual bath) that Diamant envisioned and helped launch in the Boston area.  Specifically, Diamant walks us through her own experience at a more traditional mikveh, which led to a realization that a new kind of mikveh could fill an important need for her Jewish community.
(8:48 - 18:51): Next, Diamant introduces us to her ideas about "Minhag America " (literally, the American approach, or perhaps a bit more loosely, the "American Way") , a set of ideas that define contemporary American Jewish life.  Four of its pillars include feminism, a "learned and learning Jewish community," diversity, and the end of ethnicity.
(18:52 - 30:25): Sparked by a tongue-in-cheek comment about the question of kitniyot (legumes that some Jews refrain from eating on Passover, but which the Conservative Movement recently issued a ruling permitting), we take a look at the question of Jewish authenticity.   Diamant also expands on the issues of diversity and ethnicity that she raised earlier. Additionally, we take on questions of self-identification -- how does Jewish identity exist alongside the many other elements of our identities?
(30:26 - 40:48): We close by discussing segments of the American Jewish population who are not currently connecting to Jewish institutions.  Diamant challenges those who bemoan the fate of unaffiliated Jews. She encourages us to focus on the beauty that abounds in American Jewish life, stating that "there has never been a better time to be Jewish."
 A number of Diamant's books may be of interest to our listeners. Among them are The Red Tent, The Boston Girl, and Choosing a Jewish Life. Some audio-loving podcast listeners may be pleased to discover that some are available in audiobook form through Audible.
 Visit Mayyim Hayyim Living Waters Community Mikveh's website to learn more about their work.
 The full text of Diamant's 2008 speech at Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, where she outlined some of the key elements of Minhag America, can be found here.
 The phrase "Minhag America" may sound familiar to you if you are familiar with 19th century American Jewish history. Isaac Mayer Wise, a prominent figure in the early Reform movement, created a prayerbook with the title "Minhag America" that was intended to appeal to all American Jews. It did not succeed in its goal of reaching all Jewish Americans, but it was utilized widely by many Reform congregations in the decades that followed.
 For background on the controversy over the consumption of legumes on Passover, see this article, entitled "To Kitniyot or Not to Kitniyot: Passover's New Question," from JewishBoston.com.
 In this segment, we used the Hebrew word "imahot" without defining it. It means "mothers," and typically refers to the four matriarchs from the book of Genesis -- Sarah, Rebecca, Leah, and Rachel.
Dan and Lex welcome pre-eminent American Jewish historian Jonathan Sarna to the podcast for the first episode of a series entitled "Judaism in America: Evolutions, Revolutions, or Something Else?" Stay tuned for the remaining three episodes in the series, featuring interviews with author Anita Diamant and professor Shaul Magid, as well as Dan and Lex continuing to think out loud and put the pieces together.
(0:01 - 15:25): Professor Sarna talks about what he thinks American Jews don't know about American Jewish history but might think differently if they did. He explains that American Jewish history is not a story of "linear descent" from Orthodox to Conservative to Reform to "marrying out," but instead more of a cyclical narrative -- replete with periods of "religious recession" and "religious revival." He also pushes back on the widespread notion that American Jewish history begins with Eastern European immigration in the late 19th and early 20th century, showing how many developments from the 18th and early 19th centuries set the tone for what American Judaism would later become. 
(15:26 - 26:37): Professor Sarna describes historical instances of "discontinuities that promoted Jewish continuity," including Zionism, the Jewish Day School movement, and Jewish feminism.  He also outlines the three primary strategies for Jewish continuity that have been utilized throughout American Jewish history -- retaining tradition, adapting traditions to modern times, and focusing primarily on Jewish peoplehood.
(26:38 - 36:57): We discuss religiously radical figures in Jewish history, including David Einhorn, Mordecai Kaplan, and Zalman Schachter-Shalomi, along with the influence they had on the mainstream of American Judaism, often in ways that the mainstream does not realize.  We also explore the idea of "surrogate synagogues" -- organizations or communities that serve as stand-ins for synagogues, providing for the needs of Jews who aren't as interested in synagogues. 
(36:58 - 46:34): Professor Sarna looks at some hot-topic issues, including intermarriage and antisemitism, both historically and in contemporary American Judaism. He also discusses the relatively recent phenomenon that Jews are now a part of the mainstream of American society -- an idea that would have been unthinkable a few generations ago.
 Professor Sarna's landmark book, American Judaism, served as the basis for our conversation. You can purchase the hard copy of the book here. Podcast listers might be especially interested to know that American Judaism is one of the few scholarly books of Jewish history available in audiobook format; you can get the audiobook here.
 For more on the history of Jewish day schools (and Jewish schooling more generally) check out this article from MyJewishLearning.
 David Einhorn was a leader of the movement for radical Reform in the mid-19th century, perhaps best-known for his public opposition to slavery, based on his understanding of the "spirit" of the Bible. Check out his Wikipedia page here.
 B'nai B'rith (still in existence today) began as a network of Jewish fraternal lodges around the world. Its mission eventually broadened to include service work, fighting antisemitism, and Jewish identity building.